Tachyon (hypothetical faster-than-light particles)

This article is about hypothetical faster-than-light particles. For quantum fields with imaginary mass.

Because a tachyon would always move faster than light, it would not be possible to see it approaching. After a tachyon has passed nearby, we would be able to see two images of it, appearing and departing in opposite directions. The black line is the shock wave of Cherenkov radiation, shown only in one moment of time. This double image effect is most prominent for an observer located directly in the path of a superluminal object (in this example a sphere, shown in grey). The right hand bluish shape is the image formed by the blue-doppler shifted light arriving at the observer—who is located at the apex of the black Cherenkov lines—from the sphere as it approaches. The left-hand reddish image is formed from red-shifted light that leaves the sphere after it passes the observer. Because the object arrives before the light, the observer sees nothing until the sphere starts to pass the observer, after which the image-as-seen-by-the-observer splits into two—one of the arriving sphere (to the right) and one of the departing sphere (to the left).
A tachyon /ˈtæki.ɒn/ or tachyonic particle is a hypothetical particle that always moves faster than light. Most physicists believe that faster-than-light particles cannot exist because they are not consistent with the known laws of physics.[1][2] If such particles did exist, they could be used to build a tachyonic antitelephone and send signals faster than light, which (according to special relativity) would lead to violations of causality.[2]

The possibility of particles moving faster than light was first proposed by O. M. P. Bilaniuk, V. K. Deshpande, and E. C. G. Sudarshan in 1962, although the term they used for it was “meta-particle”.[3] In the 1967 paper that coined the term,[4] Gerald Feinberg proposed that tachyonic particles could be quanta of a quantum field with imaginary mass. However, it was soon realized that excitations of such imaginary mass fields do not in fact propagate faster than light,[5] and instead represent an instability known as tachyon condensation.[1] Nevertheless, in modern physics the term “tachyon” often[1][6] refers to imaginary mass fields rather than to faster-than-light particles. Such fields have come to play a significant role in modern physics.

The term comes from the Greek: ταχύ, tachy, meaning “rapid”. The complementary particle types are called luxons (which always move at the speed of light) and bradyons (which always move slower than light); both of these particle types are known to exist.

Despite theoretical arguments against the existence of faster-than-light particles, experiments have been conducted to search for them. No compelling evidence for their existence has been found. In September 2011, it was reported that a tau neutrino had travelled faster than the speed of light in a major release by CERN; however, later updates from CERN on the OPERA project indicate that the faster-than-light readings were resultant from “a faulty element of the experiment’s fibre optic timing system”.[7]

Contents
========
1 Tachyons in relativistic theory
1.1 Mass
1.2 Speed
1.3 Neutrinos
1.4 Cherenkov radiation
1.5 Causality
1.5.1 Reinterpretation principle
2 Fundamental models
2.1 Fields with imaginary mass
2.2 Lorentz-violating theories
2.3 Fields with non-canonical kinetic term
3 History
4 In fiction
5 See also
6 References
7 External links
Tachyons in relativistic theory
In special relativity, a faster-than-light particle would have space-like four-momentum,[4] in contrast to ordinary particles that have time-like four-momentum. Although in some theories the mass of tachyons is regarded as imaginary, in some modern formulations the mass is considered real,[8][9][10] the formulas for the momentum and energy being redefined to this end. Moreover, since tachyons are constrained to the spacelike portion of the energy–momentum graph, it could not slow down to subluminal speeds.[4]

Mass
Main articles: Mass § Tachyonic particles and imaginary (complex) mass, and Tachyonic field
In a Lorentz invariant theory, the same formulas that apply to ordinary slower-than-light particles (sometimes called “bradyons” in discussions of tachyons) must also apply to tachyons. In particular the energy–momentum relation:

{\displaystyle E^{2}=(pc)^{2}+(mc^{2})^{2}\;} {\displaystyle E^{2}=(pc)^{2}+(mc^{2})^{2}\;}
(where p is the relativistic momentum of the bradyon and m is its rest mass) should still apply, along with the formula for the total energy of a particle:

{\displaystyle E={\frac {mc^{2}}{\sqrt {1-{\frac {v^{2}}{c^{2}}}}}}.} E={\frac {mc^{2}}{\sqrt {1-{\frac {v^{2}}{c^{2}}}}}}.
This equation shows that the total energy of a particle (bradyon or tachyon) contains a contribution from its rest mass (the “rest mass–energy”) and a contribution from its motion, the kinetic energy. When v is larger than c, the denominator in the equation for the energy is “imaginary”, as the value under the radical is negative. Because the total energy must be real,[dubious – discuss] the numerator must also be imaginary: i.e. the rest mass m must be imaginary, as a pure imaginary number divided by another pure imaginary number is a real number.

In some modern formulations of the theory, the mass of tachyons is regarded as real.

Speed
One curious effect is that, unlike ordinary particles, the speed of a tachyon increases as its energy decreases. In particular, {\displaystyle E} E approaches zero when {\displaystyle v} v approaches infinity. (For ordinary bradyonic matter, E increases with increasing speed, becoming arbitrarily large as v approaches c, the speed of light). Therefore, just as bradyons are forbidden to break the light-speed barrier, so too are tachyons forbidden from slowing down to below c, because infinite energy is required to reach the barrier from either above or below.

As noted by Einstein, Tolman, and others, special relativity implies that faster-than-light particles, if they existed, could be used to communicate backwards in time.

Neutrinos
In 1985, Chodos proposed that neutrinos can have a tachyonic nature.[12] The possibility of standard model particles moving at superluminal speeds can be modeled using Lorentz invariance violating terms, for example in the Standard-Model Extension.[13][14][15] In this framework, neutrinos experience Lorentz-violating oscillations and can travel faster than light at high energies. This proposal was strongly criticized.[16]

Cherenkov radiation
A tachyon with an electric charge would lose energy as Cherenkov radiation[17]—just as ordinary charged particles do when they exceed the local speed of light in a medium. A charged tachyon traveling in a vacuum therefore undergoes a constant proper time acceleration and, by necessity, its worldline forms a hyperbola in space-time. However reducing a tachyon’s energy increases its speed, so that the single hyperbola formed is of two oppositely charged tachyons with opposite momenta (same magnitude, opposite sign) which annihilate each other when they simultaneously reach infinite speed at the same place in space. (At infinite speed, the two tachyons have no energy each and finite momentum of opposite direction, so no conservation laws are violated in their mutual annihilation. The time of annihilation is frame dependent.)

Even an electrically neutral tachyon would be expected to lose energy via gravitational Cherenkov radiation, because it has a gravitational mass, and therefore increase in speed as it travels, as described above. If the tachyon interacts with any other particles, it can also radiate Cherenkov energy into those particles. Neutrinos interact with the other particles of the Standard Model, and Andrew Cohen and Sheldon Glashow recently used this to argue that the faster-than-light neutrino anomaly cannot be explained by making neutrinos propagate faster than light, and must instead be due to an error in the experiment.[18]

Causality
Causality is a fundamental principle of physics. If tachyons can transmit information faster than light, then according to relativity they violate causality, leading to logical paradoxes of the “kill your own grandfather” type. This is often illustrated with thought experiments such as the “tachyon telephone paradox”[11] or “logically pernicious self-inhibitor.”[19]

The problem can be understood in terms of the relativity of simultaneity in special relativity, which says that different inertial reference frames will disagree on whether two events at different locations happened “at the same time” or not, and they can also disagree on the order of the two events (technically, these disagreements occur when the spacetime interval between the events is ‘space-like’, meaning that neither event lies in the future light cone of the other).[20]

If one of the two events represents the sending of a signal from one location and the second event represents the reception of the same signal at another location, then as long as the signal is moving at the speed of light or slower, the mathematics of simultaneity ensures that all reference frames agree that the transmission-event happened before the reception-event.[20] However, in the case of a hypothetical signal moving faster than light, there would always be some frames in which the signal was received before it was sent, so that the signal could be said to have moved backwards in time. Because one of the two fundamental postulates of special relativity says that the laws of physics should work the same way in every inertial frame, if it is possible for signals to move backwards in time in any one frame, it must be possible in all frames. This means that if observer A sends a signal to observer B which moves faster than light in A’s frame but backwards in time in B’s frame, and then B sends a reply which moves faster than light in B’s frame but backwards in time in A’s frame, it could work out that A receives the reply before sending the original signal, challenging causality in every frame and opening the door to severe logical paradoxes.[21] Mathematical details can be found in the tachyonic antitelephone article, and an illustration of such a scenario using spacetime diagrams can be found in Baker, R. (2003)[22]

Reinterpretation principle
The reinterpretation principle[4][3][21] asserts that a tachyon sent back in time can always be reinterpreted as a tachyon traveling forward in time, because observers cannot distinguish between the emission and absorption of tachyons. The attempt to detect a tachyon from the future (and violate causality) would actually create the same tachyon and send it forward in time (which is causal).

However, this principle is not widely accepted as resolving the paradoxes.[11][21][23] Instead, what would be required to avoid paradoxes is that unlike any known particle, tachyons do not interact in any way and can never be detected or observed, because otherwise a tachyon beam could be modulated and used to create an anti-telephone[11] or a “logically pernicious self-inhibitor”.[19] All forms of energy are believed to interact at least gravitationally, and many authors state that superluminal propagation in Lorentz invariant theories always leads to causal paradoxes.[24][25]

Fundamental models
In modern physics, all fundamental particles are regarded as excitations of quantum fields. There are several distinct ways in which tachyonic particles could be embedded into a field theory.

Fields with imaginary mass
Main article: Tachyonic field
In the paper that coined the term “tachyon”, Gerald Feinberg studied Lorentz invariant quantum fields with imaginary mass.[4] Because the group velocity for such a field is superluminal, naively it appears that its excitations propagate faster than light. However, it was quickly understood that the superluminal group velocity does not correspond to the speed of propagation of any localized excitation (like a particle). Instead, the negative mass represents an instability to tachyon condensation, and all excitations of the field propagate subluminally and are consistent with causality.[5] Despite having no faster-than-light propagation, such fields are referred to simply as “tachyons” in many sources.[1][6][26][27][28][29]

Tachyonic fields play an important role in modern physics. Perhaps the most famous is the Higgs boson of the Standard Model of particle physics, which has an imaginary mass in its uncondensed phase. In general, the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which is closely related to tachyon condensation, plays an important role in many aspects of theoretical physics, including the Ginzburg–Landau and BCS theories of superconductivity. Another example of a tachyonic field is the tachyon of bosonic string theory.[26][28][30]

Tachyons are predicted by bosonic string theory and also the Neveu-Schwarz (NS) and NS-NS sectors, which are respectively the open bosonic sector and closed bosonic sector, of RNS Superstring theory prior to the GSO projection. However such tachyons are not possible due to the Sen conjecture, also known as tachyon condensation. This resulted in the necessity for the GSO projection.

Lorentz-violating theories
In theories that do not respect Lorentz invariance, the speed of light is not (necessarily) a barrier, and particles can travel faster than the speed of light without infinite energy or causal paradoxes.[24] A class of field theories of that type are the so-called Standard Model extensions. However, the experimental evidence for Lorentz invariance is extremely good, so such theories are very tightly constrained.[31][32]

Fields with non-canonical kinetic term
By modifying the kinetic energy of the field, it is possible to produce Lorentz invariant field theories with excitations that propagate superluminally.[5][25] However, such theories in general do not have a well-defined Cauchy problem (for reasons related to the issues of causality discussed above), and are probably inconsistent quantum mechanically.

History
As mentioned above, the term “tachyon” was coined by Gerald Feinberg in a 1967 paper titled “Possibility of Faster-Than-Light Particles”.[4] He had been inspired by the science-fiction story “Beep” by James Blish.[33] Feinberg studied the kinematics of such particles according to special relativity. In his paper he also introduced fields with imaginary mass (now also referred to as “tachyons”) in an attempt to understand the microphysical origin such particles might have.

The first hypothesis regarding faster-than-light particles is sometimes attributed to German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld in 1904,[34] and more recent discussions happened in 1962[3] and 1969.[35]

In fiction
Main article: Tachyons in fiction
Tachyons have appeared in many works of fiction. They have been used as a standby mechanism upon which many science fiction authors rely to establish faster-than-light communication, with or without reference to causality issues. The word tachyon has become widely recognized to such an extent that it can impart a science-fictional connotation even if the subject in question has no particular relation to superluminal travel (a form of technobabble, akin to positronic brain).

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Deprecated Linux networking commands and their replacements

Linux Collection

Doug Vitale Tech Blog

In my article detailing the command line utilities available for configuring and troubleshooting network properties on Windows and Linux, I mentioned some Linux tools that, while still included and functional in many Linux distributions, are actually considered deprecated and therefore should be phased out in favor of more modern replacements.

Specifically, the deprecated Linux networking commands in question are: arp, ifconfigiptunnel, iwconfig, nameif, netstat, and route. These programs (except iwconfig) are included in the net-tools package that has been unmaintained for years. The functionality provided by several of these utilities has been reproduced and improved in the new iproute2 suite, primarily by using its new ip command. The iproute2 software code is available from Kernel.org. Iproute2 documentation is available from the Linux Foundation and PolicyRouting.org.

Deprecated command

Replacement command(s)

arpip n (ip neighbor)
ifconfigip a (

View original post 4,396 more words

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Linux

Deprecated Linux networking commands and their replacements
In my article detailing the command line utilities available for configuring and troubleshooting network properties on Windows and Linux, I mentioned some Linux tools that, while still included and functional in many Linux distributions, are actually considered deprecated and therefore should be phased out in favor of more modern replacements.

Specifically, the deprecated Linux networking commands in question are: arp, ifconfig, iptunnel, iwconfig, nameif, netstat, and route. These programs (except iwconfig) are included in the net-tools package that has been unmaintained for years. The functionality provided by several of these utilities has been reproduced and improved in the new iproute2 suite, primarily by using its new ip command. The iproute2 software code is available from Kernel.org. Iproute2 documentation is available from the Linux Foundation and PolicyRouting.org.

Deprecated command

Replacement command(s)

arp ip n (ip neighbor)
ifconfig ip a (ip addr), ip link, ip -s (ip -stats)
iptunnel ip tunnel
iwconfig iw
nameif ip link, ifrename
netstat ss, ip route (for netstat-r), ip -s link (for netstat -i), ip maddr (for netstat-g)
route ip r (ip route)
.
Now let’s take a closer look at these deprecated commands and their replacements.

This article will not focus on iproute2 or the ip command in detail; instead it will simply give one-to-one mappings between the deprecated commands and their new counterparts. For replacement commands that are listed as ‘not apparent’, please contact me if you know otherwise.

Jump to:

Arp
Ifconfig
Iptunnel
Iwconfig
Nameif
Netstat
Route
Discussion
Recommended reading
Please note that nslookup and dig are covered separately here.

Arp
Deprecated arp commands

Replacement

arp -a [host] or –all [host]
.
Shows the entries of the specified host name or IP address. If the [host] parameter is not used, all entries will be displayed.
ip n (or ip neighbor), or ip n show
arp -d [ip_addr] or –delete [ip_addr]
.
Removes the ARP cache entry for the specified host. ip n del [ip_addr] (this “invalidates” neighbor entries)
.
ip n f [ip_addr] (or ip n flush [ip_addr])
arp -D or –use-device
.
Uses the hardware address associated with the specified interface. Not apparent
arp -e
.
Shows the entries in default (Linux) style. Not apparent
arp -f [filename] or –file [filename]
.
Similar to the -s option, only this time the address info is taken from the file that [filename] set up. If no [filename] is specified, /etc/ethers is used as default. Not apparent
arp -H or –hw-type [type] or -t [type]
.
When setting or reading the ARP cache, this optional parameter tells arp which class of entries it should check for. The default value of this parameter is ether (i.e. hardware code 0x01 for IEEE 802.3 10Mbps Ethernet). Not apparent
arp -i [int] or –device [int]
.
Selects an interface. When dumping the ARP cache only entries matching the specified interface will be printed. For example, arp -i eth0 -s 10.21.31.41 A321.ABCF.321A creates a static ARP entry associating IP address 10.21.31.41 with MAC address A321.ABCF.321A on eth0. ip n [add | chg | del | repl] dev [name]
arp -n or –numeric
.
Shows IP addresses instead of trying to determine domain names. Not apparent
arp -s [ip_addr] [hw_addr] or –set [ip_addr]
.
Manually creates a static ARP address mapping entry for host [ip_addr] with the hardware address set to [hw_addr]. ip n add [ip_addr] lladdr [mac_address] dev [device] nud [nud_state] (see example below)
arp -v
.
Uses verbose mode to provide more details. ip -s n (or ip -stats n)
.
Some ip neighbor examples are as follows:

# ip n del 10.1.2.3 dev eth0

Invalidates the ARP cache entry for host 10.1.2.3 on device eth0.

# ip neighbor show dev eth0

Shows the ARP cache for interface eth0.

# ip n add 10.1.2.3 lladdr 1:2:3:4:5:6 dev eth0 nud perm

Adds a “permanent” ARP cache entry for host 10.1.2.3 device eth0. The Neighbor Unreachability Detection (nud) state can be one of the following:

noarp – entry is valid. No attempts to validate this entry will be made but it can be removed when its lifetime expires.
permanent – entry is valid forever and can be only be removed administratively.
reachable – entry is valid until the reachability timeout expires.
stale – entry is valid but suspicious.

Ifconfig
Deprecated ifconfig commands

Replacement

ifconfig
.
Displays details on all network interfaces. ip a (or ip addr)
ifconfig [interface]
.
The name of the interface. This is usually a driver name followed by a unit number; for example, eth0 for the first Ethernet interface. Eth0 will usually be a PC’s primary network interface card (NIC). ip a show dev [interface]
ifconfig [address_family]
.
To enable the interpretation of differing naming schemes used by various protocols, [address_family] is used for decoding and displaying all protocol addresses. Currently supported address families include inet (TCP/IP, default), inet6 (IPv6), ax25 (AMPR Packet Radio), ddp (Appletalk Phase 2), ipx (Novell IPX) and netrom (AMPR Packet radio). ip -f [family] a
.
[family] can be inet (IPv4), inet6 (IPv6), or link. Additionally, -4 = -f inet and -6 = -f inet6.
ifconfig [interface] add [address/prefixlength
.
Adds an IPv6 address to the [interface]. ip a add [ip_addr/mask] dev [interface]
ifconfig [interface] address [address]
.
Assigns the specified IP [address] to the specified [interface]. ip a add [ip_addr/mask] dev [interface]
ifconfig [interface] allmulti or -allmulti
.
Enables or disables all-multicast mode. If selected, all multicast packets on the network will be received by the [interface] specified. This enables or disables the sending of incoming frames to the kernel’s network layer. ip mr iif [name] or ip mroute iif [name], where [name] is the interface on which multicast packets are received.
ifconfig [interface] arp or -arp
.
Enables or disables the use of the ARP protocol on this [interface]. ip link set arp on or arp off
ifconfig [interface] broadcast [address]
.
Specifies the address to use to use for broadcast transmissions. By default, the broadcast address for a subnet is the IP address with all ones in the host portion of the subnet address (i.e., a.b.c.255 for a /24 subnet). ip a add broadcast [ip_address]
.
ip link set dev [interface] broadcast [mac_address] (sets the link layer broadcast address)
ifconfig [interface] del [address/prefixlength]
.
Removes an IPv6 address from the [interface], such as eth0. ip a del [ipv6_addr or ipv4_addr] dev [interface]
ifconfig [interface] down
.
Disables the [interface], such as eth0. ip link set dev [interface] down
ifconfig [interface] hw [class] [address]
.
Sets the hardware (MAC) address of this [interface], if the device driver supports this operation. The keyword must be followed by the name of the hardware [class] and the printable ASCII equivalent of the hardware address. Hardware classes currently supported include ether (Ethernet), ax25 (AMPR AX.25), ARCnet and netrom (AMPR NET/ROM). ip link set dev [interface] address [mac_addr]
ifconfig [interface] io_addr [address]
.
Sets the start [address] in I/O space for this device. Not apparent; possibly ethtool.
ifconfig [interface] irq [address]
.
Sets the interrupt line used by the network interface. Not apparent; possibly ethtool.
ifconfig [interface] mem_start [address]
.
Sets the start address for shared memory of the interface. Not apparent; possibly ethtool.
ifconfig [interface] media [type]
.
Sets physical port or medium type. Examples of [type] are 10baseT, 10base2, and AUI. A [type] value of auto will tell the interface driver to automatically determine the media type (driver support for this command varies). Not apparent; possibly ethtool.
ifconfig [interface] mtu [n]
.
Sets the Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) of an interface to [n]. ip link set dev [interface] mtu [n]
ifconfig [interface] multicast
.
Sets the multicast flag on the interface (should not normally be needed as the drivers set the flag correctly themselves). ip link set dev [interface] multicast on or off
ifconfig [interface] netmask [mask_address]
.
Sets the subnet mask (not the IP address) for this [interface]. This value defaults to the standard Class A, B, or C subnet masks (based on the interface IP address) but can be changed with this command.
Not apparent
ifconfig [interface] pointopoint or -pointopoint
.
Enables or disables point-to-point mode on this [interface]. not apparent; possibly ipppd [device]. The command ip a add peer [address] specifies the address of the remote endpoint for point-to-point interfaces.
ifconfig [interface] promisc or -promisc
.
Enables or disables promiscuous mode on the [interface].
ip link set dev [interface] promisc on or off
ifconfig [interface] txquelen [n]
.
Sets the transmit queue length on the [interface]. Smaller values are recommended for connections with high latency (i.e., dial-up modems, ISDN, etc). ip link set dev [interface] txqueuelen [n] or txqlen [n]
ifconfig [interface] tunnel [address]
.
Creates a Simple Internet Transition (IPv6-in-IPv4) device which tunnels to the IPv4 [address] provided. ip tunnel mode sit (other possible modes are ipip and gre).
ifconfig [interface] up
.
Activates (enables) the [interface] specified. ip link set [interface] up
.
Some examples illustrating the ip command are as follows; using the table above you should be able to figure out what they do.

# ip link show dev eth0

# ip a add 10.11.12.13/8 dev eth0

# ip link set dev eth0 up

# ip link set dev eth0 mtu 1500

# ip link set dev eth0 address 00:70:b7:d6:cd:ef

Iptunnel
Deprecated iptunnel commands

Replacement

iptunnel [add | change | del | show] ip tunnel a or add
ip tunnel chg or change
ip tunnel d or del
ip tunnel ls or show
iptunnel add [name] [mode {ipip | gre | sit} ] remote [remote_addr] local [local_addr] ip tunnel add [name] [mode {ipip | gre | sit | isatap | ip6in6 | ipip6 | any }] remote [remote_addr] local [local_addr]
iptunnel -V or –version not apparent
.
The syntax between iptunnel and ip tunnel is very similar as these examples show.

# [iptunnel | ip tunnel] add ipip-tunl1 mode ipip remote 83.240.67.86 (ipip-tunl1 is the name of the tunnel, 83.240.67.86 is the IP address of the remote endpoint).

# [iptunnel | ip tunnel] add ipi-tunl2 mode ipip remote 104.137.4.160 local 104.137.4.150 ttl 1

# [iptunnel | ip tunnel] add gre-tunl1 mode gre remote 192.168.22.17 local 192.168.10.21 ttl 255

Iptunnel is covered in more depth here.

Iwconfig
Iwconfig’s successor, iw, is still in development. Official documentation for iw is available here and here.

Deprecated iwconfig commands

Replacement

iwconfig
.
Displays basic details about wireless interfaces, such as supported protocols (802.11a/b/g/n), Extended Service Set ID (ESSID), mode, and access point. To view these details about a particular interface, use iwconfig [interface] where the interface is the device name, such as wlan0. iw dev [interface] link
iwconfig [interface] ap [address]
.
Forces the wireless adapter to register with the access point given by the [address], if possible. This address is the cell identity of the access point (as reported by wireless scanning) which may be different from its MAC address. Not apparent
iwconfig commit
.
Some wireless adapters may not apply changes immediately (they may wait to aggregate the changes, or apply them only when the card is brought up via ifconfig). This command (when available) forces the adapter to immediately apply all pending changes. Not apparent
iwconfig [interface] essid [name]
.
Connects to the WLAN with the ESSID [name] provided. With some wireless adapters, you can disable the ESSID checking (ESSID promiscuous) with off or any (and on to re-enable it). iw [interface] connect [name]
iwconfig [interface] frag [num]
.
Sets the maximum fragment size which is always lower than the maximum packet size. This parameter may also control Frame Bursting available on some wireless adapters (the ability to send multiple IP packets together). This mechanism would be enabled if the fragment size is larger than the maximum packet size. Other valid frag parameters to auto, on, and off. Not apparent
iwconfig [interface] [freq | channel]
.
Sets the operating frequency or channel on the wireless device. A value below 1000 indicates a channel number, a value greater than 1000 is a frequency in Hz. You can append the suffix k, M or G to the value (for example, “2.46G” for 2.46 GHz frequency). You may also use off or auto to let the adapter pick up the best channel (when supported). iw dev [interface] set freq [freq] [HT20|HT40+|HT40-]
.
iw dev [interface] set channel [chan] [HT20|HT40+|HT40-]
iwconfig [interface] key [key] [mode] [on | off]
.
To set the current encryption [key], just enter the key in hex digits as XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX or XXXXXXXX. You can also enter the key as an ASCII string by using the s: prefix. On and off re=enable and disable encryption. The security mode may be open or restricted, and its meaning depends on the card used. With most cards, in open mode no authentication is used and the card may also accept non-encrypted sessions, whereas in restricted mode only encrypted sessions are accepted and the card will use authentication if available. iw [interface] connect [name] keys [key] (for WEP)
.
To connect to an AP with WPA or WPA2 encryption, you must use wpa_supplicant.
iwconfig [interface] mode [mode]
.
Sets the operating mode of the wireless device. The [mode] can be Ad-Hoc, Auto, Managed, Master, Monitor, Repeater, or Secondary.
.
Ad-Hoc: the network is composed of only one cell and without an access point.
Managed: the wireless node connects to a network composed of many access points, with roaming.
Master: the wireless node is the synchronization master, or it acts as an access point.
Monitor: the wireless node is not associated with any cell and passively monitors all packets on the frequency.
Repeater: the wireless node forwards packets between other wireless nodes.
Secondary: the wireless node acts as a backup master/repeater. Not apparent
iwconfig [interface] modu [modulation]
.
Forces the wireless adapter to use a specific set of modulations. Modern adapters support various modulations, such as 802.11b or 802.11g. The list of available modulations depends on the adapter/driver and can be displayed using iwlist modulation. Some options are 11g, CCK OFDMa, and auto. Not apparent
iwconfig [interface] nick [name]
.
Sets the nick name (or station name). Not apparent
iwconfig [interface] nwid [name]
.
Sets the Network ID for the WLAN. This parameter is only used for pre-802.11 hardware as the 802.11 protocol uses the ESSID and access point address for this function. With some wireless adapters, you can disable the Network ID checking (NWID promiscuous) with off (and on to re-enable it). Not apparent
iwconfig [interface] power [option]
iwconfig [interface] power min | max [secondsu | secondsm]
iwconfig [interface] power mode [mode]
iwconfig [interface] power on | off
.
Configures the power management scheme and mode. Valid [options] are: period [value] (sets the period between wake ups), timeout [value] (sets the timeout before going back to sleep), saving [value] (sets the generic level of power saving).
The min and max modifiers are in seconds by default, but append the suffices m or u to specify values in milliseconds or microseconds.
Valid [mode] options are: all (receive all packets), unicast (receive unicast packets only, discard multicast and broadcast) and multicast (receive multicast and broadcast only, discard unicast packets).
On and off re-enable or disable power management. Not apparent; some power commands are:
.
iw dev [interface] set power_save on
.
iw dev [interface] get power_save
iwconfig [interface] rate/bit [rate]
.
Sets the bit rate in bits per second for cards supporting multiple bit rates. The bit-rate is the speed at which bits are transmitted over the medium, the user speed of the link is lower due to medium sharing and various overhead.Suffixes k, M or G can be added to the numeric [rate] (decimal multiplier : 10^3, 10^6 and 10^9 b/s), or add ‘0‘ for enough. The [rate] can also be auto to select automatic bit-rate mode (fallback to lower rate on noisy channels), or fixed to revert back to fixed setting. If you specify a bit-rate numeric value and append auto, the driver will use all bit-rates lower and equal than this value. iw [interface] set bitrates legacy-2.4 12 18 24
iwconfig [interface] retry [option] [value]
.
To set the maximum number of retries (MAC retransmissions), enter limit [value]. To set the maximum length of time the MAC should retry, enter lifetime [value]. By default, this value is in seconds; append the suffices m or u to specify values in milliseconds or microseconds. You can also add the short, long, min and max modifiers. Not apparent
iwconfig [interface] rts [threshold]
.
Sets the size of the smallest packet for which the node sends RTS; a value equal to the maximum packet size disables the mechanism. You may also set the threshold parameter to auto, fixed or off. Not apparent
iwconfig [interface] sens [threshold]
.
Sets the sensitivity threshold (defines how sensitive the wireless adapter is to poor operating conditions such as low signal, signal interference, etc). Modern adapter designs seem to control these thresholds automatically. Not apparent
iwconfig [interface] txpower [value]
.
For adapters supporting multiple transmit powers, this sets the transmit power in dBm. If W is the power in Watt, the power in dBm is P = 30 + 10.log(W). If the [value] is postfixed by mW, it will be automatically converted to dBm. In addition, on and off enable and disable the radio, and auto and fixed enable and disable power control (if those features are available). iw dev [interface] set txpower [auto | fixed | |limit] [tx power in mBm]
.
iw phy [phyname] set txpower [auto | fixed | limit] [tx power in mBm]
iwconfig –help
.
Displays the iwconfig help message. iw help
iwconfig –version
.
Displays the version of iwconfig installed. iw –version
.
Some examples of the iw command syntax are as follows.

# iw dev wlan0 link

# iw wlan0 connect CoffeeShopWLAN

# iw wlan0 connect HomeWLAN keys 0:abcde d:1:0011223344 (for WEP)

Nameif
Deprecated nameif commands

Replacement

nameif [name] [mac_address]
.
If no name and MAC address are provided, it attempts to read addresses from /etc/mactab. Each line of mactab should contain an interface name and MAC address (or comments starting with #). ip link set dev [interface] name [name]
.
ifrename -i [interface] -n [newname]
nameif -c [config_file]
.
Reads from [config_file] instead of /etc/mactab. ifrename -c [config_file]
nameif -s
.
Error messages are sent to the syslog. Not apparent

Netstat
Deprecated netstat commands

Replacement

netstat -a or –all
.
Shows both listening and non-listening sockets.
ss -a or –all
netstat -A [family] or –protocol=[family]
.
Specifies the address families for which connections are to be shown. [family] is a comma separated list of address family keywords like inet, unix, ipx, ax25, netrom, and ddp. This has the same effect as using the –inet, –unix (-x), –ipx, –ax25, –netrom, and –ddp options. ss -f [family] or –family=[family]
.
Families: unix, inet, inet6, link, netlink.
netstat -c or –continuous
.
Configures netstat to refresh the displayed information every second until stopped. Not apparent
netstat -C
.
Prints routing information from the route cache. ip route list cache
netstat -e or –extend
.
Displays an increased level of detail. Can be entered as twice (as –ee) for maximum details. ss -e or –extended
netstat -F
.
Prints routing information from the forward information database (FIB). Not apparent
netstat -g or –groups
.
Displays multicast group membership information for IPv4 and IPv6. ip maddr, ip maddr show [interface]
netstat -i or –interface=[name]
.
Displays a table of all network interfaces, or the specified [name].
ip -s link
netstat -l or –listening
.
Shows only listening sockets (which are omitted by netstat be default). ss -l or –listening
netstat -M or –masquerade
.
Displays a list of masqueraded connections (connections being altered by Network Address Translation). Not apparent
netstat -n or –numeric
.
Show numerical addresses instead of trying to determine symbolic host, port or user names (skips DNS translation). ss -n or –numeric
netstat –numeric-hosts
.
Shows numerical host addresses but does not affect the resolution of port or user names. Not apparent
netstat –numeric ports
.
Shows numerical port numbers but does not affect the resolution of host or user names. Not apparent
netstat –numeric-users
.
Shows numerical user IDs but does not affect the resolution of host or port names. Not apparent
netstat -N or –symbolic
.
Displays the symbolic host, port, or user names instead of numerical representations. Netstat does this by default. ss -r or –resolve
netstat -o or –timers
.
Includes information related to networking timers. ss -o or –options
netstat -p or –program
.
Shows the process ID (PID) and name of the program to which each socket belongs. ss -p
netstat -r or –route
.
Shows the kernel routing tables. ip route, ip route show all
netstat -s or –statistics
.
Displays summary statistics for each protocol. ss -s
netstat -t or –tcp
.
Filters results to display TCP only. ss -t or –tcp
netstat -T or –notrim
.
Stops trimming long addresses. Not apparent
netstat -u or –udp
.
Filters results to display UDP only. ss -u or –udp
netstat -v or –verbose
.
Produces verbose output. Not apparent
netstat -w or –raw
.
Filter results to display raw sockets only. ss-w or –raw
netstat -Z or –context
.
Prints the SELinux context if SELinux is enabled. On hosts running SELinux, all processes and files are labeled in a way that represents security-relevant information. This information is called the SELinux context. Not apparent

Route
Deprecated route commands

Replacement

route
.
Displays the host’s routing tables. ip route
route -A [family] [add] or route –[family] [add]
.
Uses the specified address family with add or del. Valid families are inet (DARPA Internet), inet6 (IPv6), ax25 (AMPR AX.25), netrom (AMPR NET/ROM), ipx (Novell IPX), ddp (Appletalk DDP), and x25 (CCITT X.25). ip -f [family] route
.
[family] can be inet (IP), inet6 (IPv6), or link. Additionally, -4 = -f inet and -6 = -f inet6.
route -C or –cache
.
Operates on the kernel’s routing cache instead of the forwarding information base (FIB) routing table. Not apparent; ip route show cache dumps the routing cache.
route -e or -ee
.
Uses the netstat-r format to display the routing table. -ee will generate a very long line with all parameters from the routing table. ip route show
route -F or –fib
.
Operates on the kernel’s Forwarding Information Base (FIB) routing table (default behavior). Not apparent
route -h or –help
.
Prints the help message. ip route help
route -n
.
Shows numerical IP addresses and bypass host name resolution. Not apparent
route -v or –verbose
.
Enables verbose command output. ip -s route
route -V or –version
.
Dispays the version of net-tools and the route command. ip -V
route add or del
.
Adds or delete a route in the routing table. ip route [add | chg | repl | del] [ip_addr] via [ip_addr]
route [add or del] dev [interface]
.
Associates a route with a specific device. If dev [interface] is the last option on the command line, the word dev may be omitted. ip route [add | chg | repl | del] dev [interface]
route [add or del] [default] gw [gw]
.
Routes packets through the specified gateway IP address. ip route add default via [gw]
route [add or del] -host
.
Specifies that the target is a host (not a network). Not apparent
route [add or del] -irtt [n]
.
Sets the initial round trip time (IRTT) for TCP connections over this route to [n] milliseconds (1-12000). This is typically only used on AX.25 networks. If omitted the RFC 1122 default of 300ms is used. Not apparent; ip route [add | chg | repl | del] rtt [number] sets the RTT estimate; rttvar [number] sets the initial RTT variance estimate.
route [add or del] -net
.
Specifies that the target is a network (not a host).
Not apparent
route [add or del] [-host or -net] netmask [mask]
.
Sets the subnet [mask]. Not apparent
route [add or del] metric [n]
.
Sets the metric field in the routing table (used by routing daemons) to the value of [n]. ip route [add | chg | repl | del] metric [number] or preference [number]
route [add or del] mod, dyn, or reinstate
.
Install a dynamic or modified route. These flags are for diagnostic purposes, and are generally only set by routing daemons. Not apparent
route [add or del] mss [bytes]
.
Sets the TCP Maximum Segment Size (MSS) for connections over this route to the number of [bytes] specified. ip route [add | chg | repl | del] advmss [number] (the MSS to advertise to these destinations when establishing TCP connections).
route [add or del] reject
.
Installs a blocking route, which will force a route lookup to fail. This is used to mask out networks before using the default route. This is not intended to provide firewall functionality. ip route add prohibit [network_addr]
route [add or del] window [n]
.
Set the TCP window size for connections over this route to the value of [n] bytes. This is typically only used on AX.25 networks and with drivers unable to handle back-to-back frames. ip route [add | chg | repl | del] window [W]
.
Some examples of ip route command syntax are as follows.

# ip route add 10.23.30.0/24 via 192.168.8.50

# ip route del 10.28.0.0/16 via 192.168.10.50 dev eth0

# ip route chg default via 192.168.25.110 dev eth1

# ip route get [ip_address] (shows the interface and gateway that would be used to reach a remote host. This command would be especially useful for troubleshooting routing issues on hosts with large routing tables and/or with multiple network interfaces).

Discussion

This article and the topic of deprecated Linux networking commands has generated much interesting commentary on Reddit.

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Import clearance under EPCG

Please find below our best quotation for import clearance under EPCG.

1) Customs Clearance …………………………………………….…RS.4000.00
2) Dock Clearance ………….………………………………………..RS.4000.00
3) Agency Commission ……………………………………………..Rs.6000.00
4) EPCG registration at customs house………….………………..Rs.2500.00
5) Shipping Line delivery order charges approx……………………Rs. 30000.00(Receipted )
6) CFS/Port Charges approx………………………….………….…Rs.30000.00(Receipted)
7) Empty container deposit approx………………….…………..…Rs.5000.00(Receipted)
8) EDI Print charges approx ………………………..………………Rs.200.00 (Receipted)
9) Transportation charges …………………………………………..Rs.50000/40’ Container.

Documents Require
1) Commercial Invoice (Original)
2) Packing List (Original)
3) Bill of Lading (Original)
4) EPCG License (Original)
5) PD Bond ( One set Original & One set duplicate with original signature & Bank verification)
6) Affidavits
7) Export Hose Certificate (copy)
8) Certificate of Origin (Original)
9) IEC copy
10) Bank AD code
11) Catalog (Original)
12) Way Bill

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EXPORT BENEFITS

  1. EXPORT PROMOTION SCHEMES – 

Foreign Trade Policy 2015-20 and other schemes provide promotional measures to boost India’s exports with the objective to offset infrastructural inefficiencies and associated costs involved to provide exporters a level playing field. Brief of these measures are as under:

1.1Exports from India Scheme

i.Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS)

Under this scheme, exports of notified goods/ products to notified markets as listed in Appendix 3B of Handbook of Procedures, are granted freely transferable duty credit scrips on realized FOB value of exports in free foreign exchange at specified rate (2-5%). Such duty credit scrips can be used for payment of custom duties for import of inputs or goods, payment of excise duty on domestic procurement, payment of service tax and payment of custom duties in case of EO default.

Exports of notified goods of FOB value upto Rs 25, 000 per consignment, through courier or foreign post office using e-commerce shall be entitled for MEIS benefit.

ii.Service Exports from India Scheme (SEIS)

Service providers of notified services as per Appendix 3E are eligible for freely transferable duty credit scrip @ 5% of net foreign exchange earned.

2. DUTY EXEMPTION & REMISSION SCHEMES

These schemes enable duty free import of inputs for export production with export obligation. These scheme consists of:-

2.1 Advance Authorization Scheme:

Under this scheme, duty free import of inputs are allowed, that are physically incorporated in the export product (after making normal allowance for wastage) with minimum 15% value addition. Advance Authorization (AA) is issued for inputs in relation to resultant products as per SION or on the basis of self declaration, as per procedures of FTP. AA normally have a validity period of 12 months for the purpose of making imports  and a period of 18 months for fulfillment of Export Obligation (EO) from the date of issue.  AA is issued either to a manufacturer exporter or merchant exporter tied to a supporting manufacturer(s).

2.2 Advance Authorization for annual requirement

Exporters having past export performance (in at least preceding two financial years) shall be entitled for Advance Authorization for Annual requirement. This shall only be issued for items having SION.

2.3 Duty Free Import Authorization (DFIA) Scheme:

DFIA is issued to allow duty free import of inputs, with a minimum value addition requirement of 20%. DFIA shall be exempted only from the payment of basic customs duty. DFIA shall be issued on post export basis for products for which SION has been notified. Separate schemes exist for gems and jewellery sector for which FTP may be referred.

2.4 Duty Drawback of Customs/Central Excise Duties/Service Tax:

The scheme is administered by Department of Revenue. Under this scheme products made out of duty paid inputs are first exported and thereafter refund of duty is claimed in two ways:

  1. i) All Industry Rates :    As per Schedule
  2. ii) Brand Rate          :    As per application on the basis of data/documents

2.5 Rebate of Service tax through all industry rates

Refund of service tax paid on specified output services used for export of goods is available at specified all industry rates.

  1. EPCG SCHEME

3.1 Zero duty EPCG scheme

Under this scheme import of capital goods at zero custom duty is allowed for producing quality goods and services to enhance India’s export competitiveness. Import under EPCG shall be subject to export obligation equivalent to six times of duty saved in six years. Scheme also allows indigenous sourcing of capital goods with 25% less export obligation.

3.2 Post Export EPCG Duty Credit Scrip Scheme

A Post Export EPCG Duty Credit Scrip Scheme shall be available for exporters who intend to import capital goods on full payment of applicable duty in cash.

  1. EOU/EHTP/STP & BTP SCHEMES

Units undertaking to export their entire production of goods and services may be set up under this scheme for import/ procurement domestically without payment of duties. For details of the scheme and benefits available therein FTP may be required.

  1. OTHER SCHEMES

5.1 Towns of Export Excellence (TEE)

Selected towns producing goods of Rs. 750 crores or more are notified as TEE on potential for growth in exports and provide financial assistance under MAI Scheme to recognized Associations.

5.2 Rebate of duty on “export goods” and “material” used in manufacture of such goods: 

Rebate of duty paid on excisable goods exported or duty paid on the material used in manufacture of such export goods may be claimed under Rule of 18 of Central Excise Rules, 2002.

5.3 Export of goods under Bond i.e. without payment of excise duty: 

Rule 19 of Central Excise Rules 2002 provides clearance of excisable goods for exports without payment of central excise duty from the approved factory, warehouse and other premises.

5.4 Market Access Initiative (MAI) Scheme

Under the Scheme, financial assistance is provided for export promotion activities on focus country, focus product basis to EPCs, Industry & Trade Associations, etc.  The activities are like market studies/surveys, setting up showroom/warehouse, participation in international trade fairs, publicity campaigns, brand promotion, reimbursement of registration charges for pharmaceuticals, testing charges for engineering products abroad, etc.  Details of the Scheme is available at www.commerce.nic.in

5.5 Marketing Development Assistance (MDA) Scheme

Financial assistance is available for exporters having an annual export turnover upto Rs. 30 crores for trade fairs, buyer seller meets organized by EPC’s/ Trade promotion organizations. MDA guidelines available at www.commerce.nic.in

5.6 Status Holder Scheme

Upon achieving prescribed export performance, status recognition as one star Export House, two Star Export House, three star export house, four star export house and five star export house is accorded to the eligible applicants as per their export performance.  Such Status Holders are eligible for various non-fiscal privileges as prescribed in the Foreign Trade Policy.

In addition to the above schemes, facilities like 24X7 customs clearance, single window in customs, self assessment of customs duty, prior filing facility of shipping bills etc are available to facilitate exports.

List of effective rate of Service Taxon specified services with effect from June 1, 2015

The Ministry of Finance, Department of Revenue vide Notification No. 14/2015-ST dated May 19, 2015 has notified increase in the rate of Service tax from 12.36% to flat 14% (Subsuming Education Cess and Secondary & Higher Secondary Education Cess) to be effective from June 1, 2015.

However, in respect of certain services, applicable rate may be different in view of the abatement, different modes ofvaluation, Partial Reverse Charge as under :

Changes in the Composite rate of Service tax under the Service Tax Rules, 1994 (“the Service Tax Rules”):

Continue reading

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SAP MM-SD Link

1. In SAP you will always get integration with other modules. SD will interact with FI, MM will interact with SD :-

1a. Looking at MM and SD interaction first, take the scenario of a third party order process. This process uses a purchase order (which is sent to your vendor). Also invoice verification is used further along the process to check that the invoice you send to your customer is the same material and quantity as that which the vendor sends to you (but obviously shipped
directly to your customer).

1b. Billing is an SD function. But SAP needs to know, when processing a customer’s payment, to which GL account the payment has to be processed. For instance payment of a UK based material would be placed in a different GL account to that of a non-UK based material. Furthermore, a UK based customer may have a different GL account to that of an Export customer. This is configured in Account Determination.

2. ABAPers are there to essential do some bespoke development. Your integration, or interaction, with them would be when specifying the tables, fields, input fields, a simple process explanation, data mapping (if doing an interface from one system to another) etc.

The link between SD and MM :- 

1. When you create sales order in SD, all the details of the items are copied from Material master of MM.

2. MRP and availability check related data is also taken from MM although you control this data in SD also.

3. While you create inbound/outbound delivery with reference to a sales order,the shipping point determination takes place with the help of the loading group, plant data, shipping conditions etc. This also refers to Material Master.

4. The material which you are entering in a sales order must be extended to the sales area of your sales order/customer otherwise you cannot transact with this material.

There are many such links between SD and MM.

Now the link between SD and FI :-

1. Whenever you create a delivery with reference to a sales order, goods movement takes place in the background. eg. In case of standard sales order, you create an outbound goods delivery to the customer.
Here movement 601 takes place. This movement is configured in MM. Also, this movement hits some G/L account in FI. Every such movement of good s hits some G/L account.

2. The accounts posting in FI is done with reference to the billing documents (invoice, debit note, credit note etc) created in SD. Thus this is a link between SD and FI

3. Tax determination: In case of a tax determination also, there is a direct link between SD and MM

SD Integration points with other modules 

SD module is highly integrated with the other modules in SAP.

Sales Order –
Integration Points Module
•Availability Check – MM
•Credit Check – FI
•Costing – CO/ MM
•Tax Determination – FI
•Transfer of Requirements – PP/ MM

Delivery & Goods Issue –
Integration Points Module
•Availability Check – MM
•Credit Check – FI
•Reduces stock – MM
•Reduces Inventory $ – FI/ CO
•Requirement Eliminated – PP/ MM

Billing –
Integration Points Module
•Debit A/R – FI/ CO
•Credit Revenue – FI/ CO
•Updates G/ L – FI/ CO
(Tax, discounts, surcharges, etc.)
•Milestone Billing – PS

Return Delivery & Credit Memo –
Integration Points Module
•Increases Inventory – MM
•Updates G/ L – FI
•Credit Memo – FI
•Adjustment to A/R – FI
•Reduces Revenue – FI

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India’s Import Policy: Procedures and Duties

The following is an excerpt from the July 2014 edition of India Briefing Magazine, titled “Passage to India: Selling to India’s Consumer Market.“
In India, the import and export of goods is governed by the Foreign Trade (Development & Regulation) Act, 1992 and India’s Export Import (EXIM) Policy. India’s Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) is the principal governing body responsible for all matters related to EXIM Policy, and new guidelines on Foreign Trade Policy (FTP) are expected to be released soon to replace previous FTP guidelines that expired in March 2014.
Importers are required to register with the DGFT to obtain an Importer Exporter Code Number (IEC) issued against their Permanent Account Number (PAN), before engaging in EXIM activities. After an IEC has been obtained, the source of items for import must be identified and declared. The Indian Trade Classification – Harmonized System (ITC-HS) allows for the free import of most goods without a special import license. Certain goods that fall under the following categories require special permission or licensing, however:
1. Licensed (Restricted) Items: Licensed items can only be imported after obtaining an import license from the DGFT. These include some consumer goods such as precious and semi-precious stones, products related to safety and security, seeds, plants, animals, insecticides, pharmaceuticals and chemicals, and some electronic items.
2. Canalized Items: Canalized items can only be imported via specified transportation channels and methods, or through government agencies such as the State Trading Corporation (STC). These include petroleum products, bulk agricultural products such as grains and vegetable oils, and some pharmaceutical products.
3. Prohibited Items: These goods are strictly prohibited from import and include tallow fat, animal rennet, wild animals, and unprocessed ivory.

Import Procedures
All importers must follow detailed customs clearance formalities when importing goods into India. A comprehensive overview of EXIM procedures can be found on the Indian Directorate of General Valuation’s website.

Bill of Entry
Every importer is required to begin by submitting a Bill of Entry under Section 46. This document certifies the description and value of goods entering the country. The Bill of Entry should be submitted as follows:
1) The original and duplicate for customs
2) A copy for the importer
3) A copy for the bank
4) A copy for making remittances
Under the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), no formal Bill of Entry is required (as it is recorded electronically) but the importer is required to file a cargo declaration after prescribing particulars required for processing of the entry for customs clearance. Bills of Entry can be one of three types:
1. Bill of Entry for Home Consumption– This form is used when the imported goods are to be cleared on payment of full duty. Home consumption means use within India. It is white colored and hence often called the ‘white bill of entry’.
2. Bill of Entry for Housing– If the imported goods are not required immediately, importers may store the goods in a warehouse without the payment of duty under a bond and then clear them from the warehouse when required on payment of duty. This will enable the deferment of payment of the customs duty until goods are actually required. This Bill of Entry is printed on yellow paper and is thus often called the ‘yellow bill of entry’. It is also called the ‘into bond bill of entry’ as the bond is executed for the transfer of goods in a warehouse without paying duty.
3. Bill of Entry for Ex-Bond Clearance – The third type is for ex-bond clearance. This is used for clearance from the warehouse on payment of duty and is printed on green paper.
It is important to note that the rate of duty applicable is as it exists on the date a good is removed from a warehouse. Therefore, if the rate changes after goods have been cleared from a customs port, the customs duty as assessed on a yellow bill of entry (Bill of Entry for Housing) and paid on the value listed on the green bill of entry (Bill of Entry for Ex-Bond Clearance) will not be the same.
Other non-EDI Documents
If a Bill of Entry is filed without using the Electronic Data Interchange system, the following documents are also generally required:
• Signed invoice
• Packing list
• Bill of lading or delivery order/air waybill
• GATT declaration form
• Importer/CHA declaration
• Import license wherever necessary
• Letter of credit/bank draft
• Insurance document
• Industrial license, if required
• Test report in case of chemicals
• Adhoc exemption order
• DEEC Book/DEPB in original, where applicable
• Catalogue, technical write up, literature in case of machineries, spares or chemicals as may be applicable
• Separately split up value of spares, components, and machinery
• Certificate of Origin, if preferential rate of duty is claimed
Import Duties
The Indian government levies several types of import duties on goods. These include:
Basic Customs Duty
Basic Customs Duty (BCD) is the standard tax rate applied to goods, or the standard preferential rate in the case of goods imported from specified countries. The rates of customs duties are outlined in the First and Second Schedules of the Customs Tariff Act, 1975. The First Schedule specifies rates of import duty and the Second specifies rates of export duty. BCD is divided into standard and preferential rates, with goods imported from countries holding trade agreements with the Indian central government eligible for lower preferential rates.
Additional Customs Duty (Countervailing Duty)
Countervailing duty (CVD) is equal to central excise duty and is levied on imported articles produced in India. With CVD, the process of production amounts to ‘manufacture’ as it is defined in the Central Excise Act, 1944. CVD is based on the aggregate value of goods including landing charges and BCD. An additional CVD may be levied equivalent to sales tax or VAT, not exceeding four percent. This duty can be refunded if the importer pays all customs duties, the sales invoice indicates the credit is not allowed, and the importer pays VAT/sales tax on the sale of the good.
Other CVDs may be imposed on specific imported goods to neutralize the effect of a subsidy in the country of origin. A notification issued by the central government on these specified goods is valid for five years and potentially subject to further extension not exceeding ten years. Subsidies related to research activities, assistance to disadvantaged regions in the destination country, and assistance in adapting existing facilities to new environmental requirements are exempt.
Anti-Dumping Duty
The central government may impose an anti-dumping duty if it determines a good is being imported at below fair market price, and an importer will be notified if this is the case. The duty cannot exceed the difference between the export and normal price (margin of dumping). This does not apply to goods imported by 100 percent Export Oriented Units (EOU) and units in Free Trade Zones (FTZs) and Special Economic Zones (SEZs). If an importer is notified by the central government then an Anti-Dumping duty is to be imposed, the notification will remain valid for five years with the possibility of being extended to 10 years.
Safeguard Duty
Unlike Anti-Dumping Duty, the imposition of Safeguard Duty does not require the central government to determine a good is being imported at below fair market price. Safeguard Duty is imposed if the government decides that a sudden increase in exports is causing, or threatens to cause, serious damage to a domestic industry. A notification regarding the imposition of Safeguard Duty is valid for four years with the possibility of being extended to 10 years.
Protective Duty
A protective duty is sometimes imposed to protect domestic industry from imports. If the Tariff Commission issues a recommendation for the imposition of a Protective Duty, the central government may choose to impose this at a rate that does not exceed that recommended by the Tariff Commission. The central government can specify the period up to which the protective duty will remain in force, reduce or extend the period, and adjust the effective rate.
Education Cess
Education Cess (a tax designed to fund education and healthcare initiatives) is levied at two percent and Higher Education Cess at one percent of the aggregate of customs duties. This does not include Safeguard Duty, Countervailing Duty on subsidized articles, or Anti-Dumping Duty, however.
This article is an excerpt from the July 2014 edition of India Briefing Magazine, titled “Passage to India: Selling to India’s Consumer Market.” In this edition of India Briefing Magazine, we explore several key growth sectors and industries that enhance India’s appeal to foreign companies seeking out new markets for their products and services. For overseas firms exploring the diverse range of options available for accessing and selling to the Indian market, we outline the fundamentals of India’s import policies and procedures, as well as provide an introduction to the essentials of engaging in direct and indirect export, acquiring an Indian company, selling to the government, and establishing a local presence in the form of a liaison office, branch office, or wholly owned subsidiary.
Asia Briefing Ltd. is a subsidiary of Dezan Shira & Associates. Dezan Shira is a specialist foreign direct investment practice, providing corporate establishment, business advisory, tax advisory and compliance, accounting, payroll, due diligence and financial review services to multinationals investing in China, Hong Kong, India, Vietnam, Singapore and the rest of ASEAN. For further information, please email india@dezshira.com or visit http://www.dezshira.com.
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2 responses to “India’s Import Policy: Procedures and Duties”
1. Sandeep singh says:
September 20, 2014 at 7:17 pm
Kindly inform me about the category & custom duties of good like Blood glucose meter, blood glucose strips and thermometers.Are these things require a import license?
2. D P MISHRA says:
March 23, 2016 at 11:00 pm
Please let me know if I import a product and sell the same product in the same brand name by paying custom duty, cvd, EC etc. While selling should my Customer pay VAT for the same product.?
Procedure for Clearance of Imported and Export Goods
I. Import:

Bill of Entry – Cargo Declaration:
Goods imported in a vessel/aircraft attract customs duty and unless these are not meant for customs clearance at the port/airport of arrival by particular vessel/aircraft and are intended for transit by the same vessel/aircraft or transshipment to another customs station or to any place outside India, detailed customs clearance formalities of the landed goods have to be followed by the importers. In regard to the transit goods, so long as these are mentioned in import report/IGM for transit to any place outside India, Customs allows transit without payment of duty. Similarly for goods brought in by particular vessel aircraft for transshipment to another customs station detailed customs clearance formalities at the port/airport of landing are not prescribed and simple transshipment procedure has to be followed by the carrier and the concerned agencies. The customs clearance formalities have to be complied with by the importer after arrival of the goods at the other customs station. There could also be cases of transshipment of the goods after unloading to a port outside India. Here also simpler procedure for transshipment has been prescribed by regulations, and no duty is required to be paid. (Sections 52 to 56 of the Customs are relevant in this regard).

2. For other goods, which are offloaded importers, have the option to clear the goods for home consumption after payment of the duties leviable or to clear them for warehousing without immediate discharge of the duties leviable in terms of the warehousing provisions built in the Customs Act. Every importer is required to file in terms of the Section 46 an entry (which is called Bill of entry) for home consumption or warehousing in the form, as prescribed by regulations.

3. If the goods are cleared through the EDI system no formal Bill of Entry is filed as it is generated in the computer system, but the importer is required to file a cargo declaration having prescribed particulars required for processing of the entry for customs clearance.

4. The Bill of entry, where filed, is to be submitted in a set, different copies meant for different purposes and also given different colour scheme, and on the body of the bill of entry the purpose for which it will be used is generally mentioned in the non-EDI declaration.

5. The importer clearing the goods for domestic consumption has to file bill of entry in four copies; original and duplicate are meant for customs, third copy for the importer and the fourth copy is meant for the bank for making remittances.

6. In the non-EDI system alongwith the bill of entry filed by the importer or his representative the following documents are also generally required: –
• Signed invoice
• Packing list
• Bill of Lading or Delivery Order/Airway Bill
• GATT declaration form duly filled in
• Importers/CHA’s declaration
• License wherever necessary
• Letter of Credit/Bank Draft/wherever necessary
• Insurance document
• Import license
• Industrial License, if required
• Test report in case of chemicals
• Adhoc exemption order
• DEEC Book/DEPB in original
• Catalogue, Technical write up, Literature in case of machineries, spares or chemicals as may be applicable
• Separately split up value of spares, components machineries
• Certificate of Origin, if preferential rate of duty is claimed
• No Commission declaration
7. While filing the bill of entry and giving various particulars as prescribed therein the correctness of the information given has also to be certified by the importer in the form a declaration at the foot of the bill of entry and any mis-declaration/incorrect declaration has legal consequences, and due precautions should be taken by importer while signing these declarations.
8. Under the EDI system, the importer does not submit documents as such for assessment but submits declarations in electronic format containing all the relevant information to the Service Centre. A signed paper copy of the declaration is taken by the service centre operator for non-repudiability of the declaration. A checklist is generated for verification of data by the importer/CHA. After verification, the data is submitted to the system by the Service Centre Operator and system then generates a B/E Number, which is endorsed on the printed checklist and returned to the importer/CHA. No original documents are taken at this stage. Original documents are taken at the time of examination. The importer/CHA also need to sign on the final document after Customs clearance.
9. The first stage for processing a bill of entry is what is termed the noting of the bill of entry, vis-à-vis, the IGM filed by the carrier. In the non-EDI system the importer has to get the bill of entry noted in the concerned unit which checks the consignment sought to be cleared having been manifested in the particular vessel and a bill of entry number is generated and indicated on all copies. After noting the bill of entry gets sent to the appraising section of the Custom House for assessment functions, payment of duty etc. In the EDI system, the Steamer Agents get the manifest filed through EDI or by using the service centre of the Custom House and the noting aspect is checked by the system itself – which also generates bill of entry number.
10. After noting/registration of the Bill of entry, it is forwarded manually or electronically to the concerned Appraising Group in the Custom House dealing with the commodity sought to be cleared. Appraising Wing of the Custom House has a number of Groups dealing with earmarked commodities falling under different Chapter Headings of the Customs Tariff and they take up further scrutiny for assessment, import permissibility etc. angle. Assessment:
11. The basic function of the assessing officer in the appraising groups is to determine the duty liability taking due note of any exemptions or benefits claimed under different export promotion schemes. They have also to check whether there are any restrictions or prohibitions on the goods imported and if they require any permission/license/permit etc., and if so whether these are forthcoming. Assessment of duty essentially involves proper classification of the goods imported in the customs tariff having due regard to the rules of interpretations, chapter and sections notes etc., and determining the duty liability. It also involves correct determination of value where the goods are assessable on ad valorem basis. The assessing officer has to take note of the invoice and other declarations submitted alongwith the bill of entry to support the valuation claim, and adjudge whether the transaction value method and the invoice value claimed for the basis of assessment is acceptable, or value needs to be redetermined having due regard to the provisions of Section 14 and the valuation rules issued thereunder, the case law and various instructions on the subject. He also takes note of the contemporaneous values and other information on valuation available with the Custom House.
12. Where the appraising officer is not very clear about the description of the goods from the document or as some doubts about the proper classification, which may be possible only to determine after detailed examination of the nature of the goods or testing of its samples, he may give an examination order in advance of finalisation of assessment including order for drawing of representative sample. This is done generally on the reverse of the original copy of the bill of entry which is presented by the authorized agent of the importer to the appraising staff posted in the Docks/Air Cargo Complexes where the goods are got examined in the presence of the importer’s representative.
13. On receipt of the examination report the appraising officers in the group assesses the bill of entry. He indicates the final classification and valuation in the bill of entry indicating separately the various duties such as basic, countervailing, anti-dumping, safeguard duties etc., that may be leviable. Thereafter the bill of entry goes to Assistant Commissioner/Deputy Commissioner for confirmation depending upon certain value limits and sent to comptist who calculates the duty amount taking into account the rate of exchange at the relevant date as provided under Section 14 of the Customs Act.
14. After the assessment and calculation of the duty liability the importer’s representative has to deposit the duty calculated with the treasury or the nominated banks, whereafter he can go and seek delivery of the goods from the custodians.
15. Where the goods have already been examined for finalization of classification or valuation no further examination/checking by the dock appraising staff is required at the time of giving delivery and the goods can be taken delivery after taking appropriate orders and payment of dues to the custodians, if any.
16. In most cases, the appraising officer assesses the goods on the basis of information and details furnished to the importer in the bill of entry, invoice and other related documents including catalogue, write-up etc. He also determines whether the goods are permissible for import or there are any restriction/prohibition. He may allow payment of duty and delivery of the goods on what is called second check/appraising basis in case there are no restriction/prohibition. In this method, the duties as determined and calculated are paid in the Custom House and appropriate order is given on the reverse of the duplicate copy of the bill of entry and the importer or his agent after paying the duty submits the goods for examination in the import sheds in the docks etc., to the examining staff. If the goods are found to be as declared and no other discrepancies/mis-declarations etc., are detected, the importer or his agent can clear the goods after the shed appraiser gives out of charge order.
17. Wherever the importer is not satisfied with the classification, rate of duty or valuation as may be determined by the appraising officer, he can seek an assessment order. An appeal against the assessment order can be made to appropriate appellate authority within the time limits and in the manner prescribed. EDI Assessment:
18. In the EDI system of handling of the documents/declarations for taking import clearances as mentioned earlier the cargo declaration is transferred to the assessing officer in the groups electronically.
19. The assessing officer processes the cargo declaration on screen with regard to all the parameters as given above for manual process. However in EDI system, all the calculations are done by the system itself. In addition, the system also supplies useful information for calculation of duty, for example, when a particular exemption notification is accepted, the system itself gives the extent of exemption under that notification and calculates the duty accordingly. Similarly, it automatically applies relevant rate of exchange in force while calculating. Thus no comptist is required in EDI system. If assessing officer needs any clarification from the importer, he may raise a query. The query is printed at the service centre and the party replies to the query through the service centre.
20. After assessment, a copy of the assessed bill of entry is printed in the service centre. Under EDI, documents are normally examined at the time of examination of the goods. Final bill of entry is printed after ‘out of charge’ is given by the Custom Officer.
21. In EDI system, in certain cases, the facility of system appraisal is available. Under this process, the declaration of importer is taken as correct and the system itself calculates duty which is paid by the importer. In such case, no assessing officer is involved.
22. Also, a facility of tele-enquiry is provided in certain major Customs stations through which the status of documents filed through EDI systems could be ascertained through the telephone. If nay query is raised, the same may be got printed through fax in the office of importer/exporter/CHA. Examination of Goods:
23. All imported goods are required to be examined for verification of correctness of description given in the bill of entry. However, a part of the consignment is selected on random selection basis and is examined. In case the importer does not have complete information with him at the time of import, he may request for examination of the goods before assessing the duty liability or, if the Customs Appraiser/Assistant Commissioner feels the goods are required to be examined before assessment, the goods are examined prior to assessment. This is called First Appraisement. The importer has to request for first check examination at the time of filing the bill of entry or at data entry stage. The reason for seeking First Appraisement is also required to be given. On original copy of the bill of entry, the Customs Appraiser records the examination order and returns the bill of entry to the importer/CHA with the direction for examination, who is to take it to the import shed for examination of the goods in the shed. Shed Appraiser/Dock examiner examines the goods as per examination order and records his findings. In case group has called for samples, he forwards sealed samples to the group. The importer is to bring back the said bill of entry to the assessing officer for assessing the duty. Appraiser assesses the bill of entry. It is countersigned by Assistant/Deputy Commissioner if the value is more than Rs. 1 lakh.
24. The goods can also be examined subsequent to assessment and payment of duty. This is called Second Appraisement. Most of the consignments are cleared on second appraisement basis. It is to be noted that whole of the consignment is not examined. Only those packages which are selected on random selection basis are examined in the shed.
25. Under the EDI system, the bill of entry, after assessment by the group or first appraisement, as the case may be, need to be presented at the counter for registration for examination in the import shed. A declaration for correctness of entries and genuineness of the original documents needs to be made at this stage. After registration, the B/E is passed on to the shed Appraiser for examination of the goods. Along-with the B/E, the CHA is to present all the necessary documents. After completing examination of the goods, the Shed Appraiser enters the report in System and transfers first appraisement B/E to the group and gives ‘out of charge’ in case of already assessed Bs/E. Thereupon, the system prints Bill of Entry and order of clearance (in triplicate). All these copies carry the examination report, order of clearance number and name of Shed Appraiser. The two copies each of B/E and the order are to be returned to the CHA/Importer, after the Appraiser signs them. One copy of the order is attached to the Customs copy of B/E and retained by the Shed Appraiser. Green Channel facility:
26. Some major importers have been given the green channel clearance facility. It means clearance of goods is done without routine examination of the goods. They have to make a declaration in the declaration form at the time of filing of bill of entry. The appraisement is done as per normal procedure except that there would be no physical examination of the goods. Only marks and number are to be checked in such cases. However, in rare cases, if there are specific doubts regarding description or quantity of the goods, physical examination may be ordered by the senior officers/investigation wing like SIIB. Execution of Bonds:
27. Wherever necessary, for availing duty free assessment or concessional assessment under different schemes and notifications, execution of end use bonds with Bank Guarantee or other surety is required to be furnished. These have to be executed in prescribed forms before the assessing Appraiser. Payment of Duty:
28. The duty can be paid in the designated banks or through TR-6 challans. Different Custom Houses have authorised different banks for payment of duty. It is necessary to check the name of the bank and the branch before depositing the duty. Bank endorses the payment particulars in challan which is submitted to the Customs. Amendment of Bill of Entry:
29. Whenever mistakes are noticed after submission of documents, amendments to the of entry is carried out with the approval of Deputy/Assistant Commissioner. The request for amendment may be submitted with the supporting documents. For example, if the amendment of container number is required, a letter from shipping agent is required. Amendment in document may be permitted after the goods have been given out of charge i.e. goods have been cleared on sufficient proof being shown to the Deputy/Assistant Commissioner. Prior Entry for Bill of Entry:
30. For faster clearance of the goods, provision has been made in section 46 of the Act, to allow filing of bill of entry prior to arrival of goods. This bill of entry is valid if vessel/aircraft carrying the goods arrive within 30days from the date of presentation of bill of entry.
31. The importer is to file 5 copies of the bill of entry and the fifth copy is called Advance Noting copy. The importer has to declare that the vessel/aircraft is due within 30 days and they have to present the bill of entry for final noting as soon as the IGM is filed. Advance noting is available to all imports except for into bond bill of entry and also during the special period. Mother Vessel/Feeder vessel:
32. Often in case of goods coming by container ships they are transferred at an intermediate ports (like Ceylon) from mother vessel to smaller vessels called feeder vessels. At the time of filing of advance noting B/E, the importer does not know as to which vessel will finally bring the goods to Indian port. In such cases, the name of mother vessel may be filled in on the basis of the bill of lading. On arrival of the feeder vessel, the bill of entry may be amended to mention names of both mother vessel and feeder vessel Specialised Schemes.
33. The import of goods are made under specialised schemes like DEEC or EOU etc. The importer in such cases is required to execute bonds with the Customs authorities for fulfillment of conditions of respective notifications. If the importer fails to fulfill the conditions, he has to pay the duty leviable on those goods. The amount of bond would be equal to the amount of duty leviable on the imported goods. The bank guarantee is also required alongwith the bond. However, the amount of bank guarantee depends upon the status of the importer like Super Star Trading House/Trading House etc. Bill of Entry for Bond/Warehousing:
34. A separate form of bill of entry is used for clearance of goods for warehousing. All documents as required to be attached with a Bill of Entry for home consumption are also required to be filed with bill of entry for warehousing. The bill of entry is assessed in the same manner and duty payable is determined. However, since duty is not required to be paid at the time of warehousing of the goods, the purpose of assessing the goods at this stage is to secure the duty in case the goods do not reach the warehouse. The duty is paid at the time of ex-bond clearance of goods for which an ex-bond bill of entry is filed. The rate of duty applicable to imported goods cleared from a warehouse is the rate in-force on the date on which the goods are actually removed from the warehouse. (References: Bill of Entry (Forms) Regulations, 1976, ATA carnet (Form Bill of Entry and Shipping Bill) Regulations, 1990, Uncleared goods (Bill of entry) regulation, 1972, , CBEC Circulars No. 22/97, dated 4/7/1997, 63/97, dated 21/11/1997).

II. Export:
For clearance of export goods, the export or his agents have to undertake the following formalities:
(a) Registration:
35. The exporters have to obtain PAN based Business Identification Number(BIN) from the Directorate General of Foreign Trade prior to filing of shipping bill for clearance of export goods. Under the EDI System, PAN based BIN is received by the Customs System from the DGFT online. The exporters are also required to register authorised foreign exchange dealer code (through which export proceeds are expected to be realised) and open a current account in the designated bank for credit of any drawback incentive.
36. Whenever a new Airline, Shipping Line, Steamer Agent, port or airport comes into operation, they are required to be registered into the Customs System. Whenever, electronic processing of shipping bill etc. is held up on account of non-registration of these entities, the same is to be brought to the notice of Assistant/Deputy Commissioner in-charge of EDI System for registering the new entity in the system.
(b) Registration in the case of export under export promotion schemes:
37. All the exporters intending to export under the export promotion scheme need to get their licences/DEEC book etc. registered at the Customs Station. For such registration, original documents are required.
(c) Processing of Shipping Bill-Non-EDI:
38. Under manual system, shipping bills or, as the case may be, bills of export are required to be filed in format as prescribed in the Shipping Bill and Bill of Export (Form) regulations, 1991. The bills of export are being used if clearance of export goods is taken at the Land Customs Stations. Different forms of shipping bill/bill of export have been prescribed for export of duty free goods, export of dutiable goods and export under drawback etc.
39. Shipping Bills are required to be filed along with all original documents such as invoice, AR-4, packing list etc. The assessing officer in the Export Department checks the value of the goods, classification under Drawback schedule in case of Drawback Shipping Bills, rate of duty/cess where applicable, exportability of goods under EXIM policy and other laws inforce. The DEEC/DEPB Shipping bills are processed in the DEEC group. In case of DEEC Shipping bills, the assessing officer verifies that the description of the goods declared in the shipping bill and invoice match with the description of the resultant product as given in the DEEC book. If the assessing officer has any doubts regarding value, description of goods, he may call for samples of the goods from the docks. He may also call for any other information required by him for processing of shipping bill. He may assess the shipping bill after visual inspection of the sample or may send it for test and pass the shipping bill provisionally.

40. Once, the shipping bill is passed by the Export Department, the exporter or his agent present the goods to the shed appraiser (export) in docks for examination. The shed appraiser may mark the document to a Custom officer (usually an examiner) for examining the goods. The examination is carried out under the supervision of the shed appraiser (export). If the description and other particulars of the goods are found to be as declared, the shed appraiser gives a ‘let export’ order, after which the exporter may contact the preventive superintendent for supervising the loading of goods on to the vessel.
41. In case the examining staff in the docks finds some discrepancy in the goods, they may mark the shipping bill back to export department/DEEC group with their observations as well as sample of goods, if needed. The export department re-considers the case and decide whether export can be allowed, or amendment in description, value etc. is required before export and whether any other action is required to be taken under the Customs Act, 1962 for mis-declaration of description of value etc.
(d) Processing of Shipping Bill-EDI:
42. Under EDI System, declarations in prescribed format are to be filed through the Service Centers of Customs. A checklist is generated for verification of data by the exporter/CHA. After verification, the data is submitted to the System by the Service Center operator and the System generates a Shipping Bill Number, which is endorsed on the printed checklist and returned to the exporter/CHA. For export items which are subject to export cess, the TR-6 challans for cess is printed and given by the Service Center to the exporter/CHA immediately after submission of shipping bill. The cess can be paid on the strength of the challan at the designated bank. No copy of shipping bill is made available to exporter/CHA at this stage.
(e) Octroi procedure, Quota Allocation and Other certification for Export Goods:
43. The quota allocation label is required to be pasted on the export invoice. The allocation number of AEPC is to be entered in the system at the time of shipping bill entry. The quota certification of export invoice needs to be submitted to Customs along-with other original documents at the time of examination of the export cargo. For determining the validity date of the quota, the relevant date needs to be the date on which the full consignment is presented to the Customs for examination and duly recorded in the Computer System. In EDI System at Delhi Air cargo, the quota information is automatically verified from the AEPC/TEXPROCIL system.
44. Since the shipping bill is generated only after the ‘let export order’ is given by Customs, the exporter may make use of export invoice or such other document as required by the Octroi authorities for the purpose of Octroi exemption.
(f) Arrival of Goods at Docks:
45. The goods brought for the purpose of examination and subsequent ‘let export’ is allowed entry to the Dock on the strength of the checklist and other declarations filed by the exporter in the Service Center. The Port authorities have to endorse the quantity of goods actually received on the reverse of the Check List.
(g) System Appraisal of Shipping Bills:
46. In many cases the Shipping Bill is processed by the system on the basis of declarations made by the exporters without any human intervention. In other cases where the Shipping Bill is processed on screen by the Customs Officer, he may call for the samples, if required for confirming the declared value or for checking classification under the Drawback Schedule. He may also give any special instructions for examination of goods, if felt necessary.
(h) Status of Shipping Bill:
47. The exporter/CHA can check up with the query counter at the Service Center whether the Shipping Bill submitted by them in the system has been cleared or not, before the goods are brought into the Docks for examination and export. In case any query is raised, the same is required to be replied through the service center or in case of CHAs having EDI connectivity through their respective terminals. The Customs officer may pass the Shipping Bill after all the queries have been satisfactorily replied to.
(i) Customs Examination of Export Cargo:
48. After the receipt of the goods in the dock, the exporter/CHA may contact the Customs Officer designated for the purpose present the check list with the endorsement of Port Authority and other declarations as aforesaid along with all original documents such as, Invoice and Packing list, AR-4, etc. Customs Officer may verify the quantity of the goods actually received and enter into the system and thereafter mark the Electronic Shipping Bill and also hand over all original documents to the Dock Appraiser of the Dock who many assign a Customs Officer for the examination and intimate the officers’ name and the packages to be examined, if any, on the check list and return it to the exporter or his agent.
49. The Customs Officer may inspect/examine the shipment along with the Dock Appraiser. The Customs Officer enters the examination report in the system. He then marks the Electronic Bill along with all original documents and checklist to the Dock Appraiser. If the Dock Appraiser is satisfied that the particulars entered in the system conform to the description given in the original documents and as seen in the physical examination, he may proceed to allow “let export” for the shipment and inform the exporter or his agent.
(j) Variation Between the Declaration & Physical Examination:
50. The check list and the declaration along with all original documents is retained by the Appraiser concerned. In case of any variation between the declaration in the Shipping Bill and physical documents/examination report, the Appraiser may mark the Electronic Shipping Bill to the Assistant Commissioner/Deputy Commissioner of Customs (Exports). He may also forward the physical documents to Assistant Commissioner/Deputy Commissioner of Customs (Exports) and instruct the exporter or his agent to meet the Assistant Commissioner/Deputy Commissioner of Customs (Exports) for settlement of dispute. In case the exporter agrees with the views of the Department, the Shipping Bill needs to be processed accordingly. Where, however, the exporter disputes the view of the Department principles of natural justice is required to be followed before finalisation of the issue.
(k) Stuffing / Loading of Goods in Containers
51. The exporter or his agent should hand over the exporter copy of the shipping bill duly signed by the Appraiser permitting “Let Export” to the steamer agent who may then approach the proper officer (Preventive Officer) for allowing the shipment. In case of container cargo the stuffing of container at Dock is dome under Preventive Supervision. Loading of both containerized and bulk cargo is done under Preventive Supervision. The Customs Preventive Superintendent (Docks) may enter the particulars of packages actually stuffed in to the container, the bottle seal number particulars of loading of cargo container on board into the system and endorse these details on the exporter copy of the shipping bill presented to him by the steamer agent. If there is a difference in the quantity/number of packages stuffed in the containers/goods loaded on vessel the Superintendent (Docks) may put a remark on the shipping bill in the system and that shipping bill requires amendment or changed quantity. Such shipping bill also may not be taken up for the purpose of sanction of Drawback/DEEC logging, till the shipping bill is suitably amended for the changed quantity. The Customs Preventive Officer supervising the loading of container and general cargo in to the vessel may give “Shipped on Board” endorsement on the exporters copy of the shipping bill.
(l) Drawal of Samples:
52. Where the Appraiser Dock (export) orders for samples to be drawn and tested, the Customs Officer may proceed to draw two samples from the consignment and enter the particulars thereof along with details of the testing agency in the ICES/E system. There is no separate register for recording dates of samples drawn. Three copies of the test memo are prepared by the Customs Officer and are signed by the Customs Officer and Appraising Officer on behalf of Customs and the exporter or his agent. The disposals of the three copies of the test memo are as follows: –
• Original – to be sent along with the sample to the test agency.
• Duplicate – Customs copy to be retained with the 2nd sample.
• Triplicate – Exporter’s copy.
53. The Assistant Commissioner/Deputy Commissioner if he considers necessary, may also order for sample to be drawn for purpose other than testing such as visual inspection and verification of description, market value inquiry, etc.
(m) Amendments:
54. Any correction/amendments in the checklist generated after filing of declaration can be made at the service center, provided, the documents have not yet been submitted in the system and the shipping bill number has not been generated. Where corrections are required to be made after the generation of the shipping bill No. or after the goods have been brought into the Export Dock, amendments is carried out in the following manners.
• If the goods have not yet been allowed “let export” amendments may be permitted by the Assistant Commissioner (Exports).
• Where the “Let Export” order has already been given, amendments may be permitted only by the Additional/Joint Commissioner, Custom House, in charge of export section.
55. In both the cases, after the permission for amendments has been granted, the Assistant Commissioner/Deputy Commissioner (Export) may approve the amendments on the system on behalf of the Additional /Joint Commissioner. Where the print out of the Shipping Bill has already been generated, the exporter may first surrender all copies of the shipping bill to the Dock Appraiser for cancellation before amendment is approved on the system.
(n) Export of Goods Under Claim for Drawback:
56. After actual export of the goods, the Drawback claim is processed through EDI system by the officers of Drawback Branch on first come first served basis. There is no need for filing separate drawback claims. The status of the shipping bills and sanction of DBK claim can be ascertained from the query counter set up at the service center. If any query has been raised or deficiency noticed, the same is shown on the terminal. A print out of the query/deficiency may be obtained by the authorized person of the exporter from the service center. The exporters are required to reply to such queries through the service center. The claim will come in queue of the EDI system only after reply to queries/deficiencies are entered by the Service Center.
57. All the claims sanctioned on a particular day are enumerated in a scroll and transferred to the Bank through the system. The bank credits the drawback amount in the respective accounts of the exporters. Bank may send a fortnightly statement to the exporters of such credits made in their accounts.
58. The Steamer Agent/Shipping Line may transfer electronically the EGM to the Customs EDI system so that the physical export of the goods is confirmed, to enable the Customs to sanction the drawback claims.
(o) Generation of Shipping Bills:
59. After the “let export” order is given on the system by the Appraiser, the Shipping Bill is generated by the system in two copies i.e., one Customs copy, one exporter’s copy (E.P. copy is generated after submission of EGM). After obtaining the print out the appraiser obtains the signatures of the Customs Officer on the examination report and the representative of the CHA on both copies of the shipping bill and examination report. The Appraiser thereafter signs & stamps both the copies of the shipping bill at the specified place.
60. The Appraiser also signs and stamps the original & duplicate copy of SDF. Customs copy of shipping bill and original copy of the SDF is retained along with the original declarations by the Appraiser and forwarded to Export Department of the Custom House. He may return the exporter copy and the second copy of the SDF to the exporter or his agent.
61. As regards the AEPC quota and other certifications, these are retained along with the shipping bill in the dock after the shipping bill is generated by the system. At the time of examination, apart from checking that the goods are covered by the quota certifications, the details of the quota entered into the system needs to be checked.
(p) Export General Manifest:
62. All the shipping lines/agents need to furnish the Export General Manifests, Shipping Bill wise, to the Customs electronically within 7 days from the date of sailing of the vessel.
63. Apart from lodging the EGM electronically the shipping lines need to continue to file manual EGMs along with the exporter copy of the shipping bills as per the present practice in the export department. The manual EGMs need to be entered in the register at the Export Department and the Shipping lines may obtain acknowledgements indicating the date and time at which the EGMs were received by the Export Department.
64. The above is the general procedure for export under EDI Systems. However special procedures exist for specified schemes, details of which may be obtained from the Public Notice/Standing Orders issued by the respective Commissionerates.

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Documentation Process

INV. NO.
Consignee Name
Purchase Order (PO)
Buyers Purchase Order No.
Country
Q.C. TESTING CODE LIST OK
Sample Drawn OK
Scan Copy Received OK
Original Copy Received
Health Apply OK
Health Certificate (HC) OK
DOCUMENTATION Customs Invoice OK
Commercial Invoice OK
LC  Draft YES
LC Final YES
Loading Plan NR
Loading Photo
Packing List YES
Shipping Details / Shipment Advice/Vessel Details
BL Draft YES
Bl Final YES
CO Draft GSP (CO) OK
CO Final GSP (CO) OK
Organoleptic Inspection Report
Gurrantee Certificate
Beneficiary Letter
Beneficiary Letter of Confirmation
Banking Covering Letter
Bill of Exchange
JAPAN CEPA (FROM EIA)
ASIAN AFTA (FROM EIA)
USA DSP Certificate (FROM MPEDA)
USA (10+2)  ISF
EU GSP (FROM EIA) OK
EU CATCHE CERTIFICATE FROM MPEDA REQ
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EXPORT BENEFITS

  1. EXPORT PROMOTION SCHEMES – 

Foreign Trade Policy 2015-20 and other schemes provide promotional measures to boost India’s exports with the objective to offset infrastructural inefficiencies and associated costs involved to provide exporters a level playing field. Brief of these measures are as under:

1.1Exports from India Scheme

i.Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS)

Under this scheme, exports of notified goods/ products to notified markets as listed in Appendix 3B of Handbook of Procedures, are granted freely transferable duty credit scrips on realized FOB value of exports in free foreign exchange at specified rate (2-5%). Such duty credit scrips can be used for payment of custom duties for import of inputs or goods, payment of excise duty on domestic procurement, payment of service tax and payment of custom duties in case of EO default.

Exports of notified goods of FOB value upto Rs 25, 000 per consignment, through courier or foreign post office using e-commerce shall be entitled for MEIS benefit.

ii.Service Exports from India Scheme (SEIS)

Service providers of notified services as per Appendix 3E are eligible for freely transferable duty credit scrip @ 5% of net foreign exchange earned.

2. DUTY EXEMPTION & REMISSION SCHEMES

These schemes enable duty free import of inputs for export production with export obligation. These scheme consists of:-

2.1 Advance Authorization Scheme:

Under this scheme, duty free import of inputs are allowed, that are physically incorporated in the export product (after making normal allowance for wastage) with minimum 15% value addition. Advance Authorization (AA) is issued for inputs in relation to resultant products as per SION or on the basis of self declaration, as per procedures of FTP. AA normally have a validity period of 12 months for the purpose of making imports  and a period of 18 months for fulfillment of Export Obligation (EO) from the date of issue.  AA is issued either to a manufacturer exporter or merchant exporter tied to a supporting manufacturer(s).

2.2 Advance Authorization for annual requirement

Exporters having past export performance (in at least preceding two financial years) shall be entitled for Advance Authorization for Annual requirement. This shall only be issued for items having SION.

2.3 Duty Free Import Authorization (DFIA) Scheme:

DFIA is issued to allow duty free import of inputs, with a minimum value addition requirement of 20%. DFIA shall be exempted only from the payment of basic customs duty. DFIA shall be issued on post export basis for products for which SION has been notified. Separate schemes exist for gems and jewellery sector for which FTP may be referred.

2.4 Duty Drawback of Customs/Central Excise Duties/Service Tax:

The scheme is administered by Department of Revenue. Under this scheme products made out of duty paid inputs are first exported and thereafter refund of duty is claimed in two ways:

  1. i) All Industry Rates :    As per Schedule
  2. ii) Brand Rate          :    As per application on the basis of data/documents

2.5 Rebate of Service tax through all industry rates

Refund of service tax paid on specified output services used for export of goods is available at specified all industry rates.

  1. EPCG SCHEME

3.1 Zero duty EPCG scheme

Under this scheme import of capital goods at zero custom duty is allowed for producing quality goods and services to enhance India’s export competitiveness. Import under EPCG shall be subject to export obligation equivalent to six times of duty saved in six years. Scheme also allows indigenous sourcing of capital goods with 25% less export obligation.

3.2 Post Export EPCG Duty Credit Scrip Scheme

A Post Export EPCG Duty Credit Scrip Scheme shall be available for exporters who intend to import capital goods on full payment of applicable duty in cash.

  1. EOU/EHTP/STP & BTP SCHEMES

Units undertaking to export their entire production of goods and services may be set up under this scheme for import/ procurement domestically without payment of duties. For details of the scheme and benefits available therein FTP may be required.

5. OTHER SCHEMES

5.1 Towns of Export Excellence (TEE)

Selected towns producing goods of Rs. 750 crores or more are notified as TEE on potential for growth in exports and provide financial assistance under MAI Scheme to recognized Associations.

5.2 Rebate of duty on “export goods” and “material” used in manufacture of such goods: 

Rebate of duty paid on excisable goods exported or duty paid on the material used in manufacture of such export goods may be claimed under Rule of 18 of Central Excise Rules, 2002.

5.3 Export of goods under Bond i.e. without payment of excise duty: 

Rule 19 of Central Excise Rules 2002 provides clearance of excisable goods for exports without payment of central excise duty from the approved factory, warehouse and other premises.

5.4 Market Access Initiative (MAI) Scheme

Under the Scheme, financial assistance is provided for export promotion activities on focus country, focus product basis to EPCs, Industry & Trade Associations, etc.  The activities are like market studies/surveys, setting up showroom/warehouse, participation in international trade fairs, publicity campaigns, brand promotion, reimbursement of registration charges for pharmaceuticals, testing charges for engineering products abroad, etc.  Details of the Scheme is available at www.commerce.nic.in

5.5 Marketing Development Assistance (MDA) Scheme

Financial assistance is available for exporters having an annual export turnover upto Rs. 30 crores for trade fairs, buyer seller meets organized by EPC’s/ Trade promotion organizations. MDA guidelines available at www.commerce.nic.in

5.6 Status Holder Scheme

Upon achieving prescribed export performance, status recognition as one star Export House, two Star Export House, three star export house, four star export house and five star export house is accorded to the eligible applicants as per their export performance.  Such Status Holders are eligible for various non-fiscal privileges as prescribed in the Foreign Trade Policy.

In addition to the above schemes, facilities like 24X7 customs clearance, single window in customs, self assessment of customs duty, prior filing facility of shipping bills etc are available to facilitate exports.

 List of effective rate of Service Taxon specified services with effect from June 1, 2015

The Ministry of Finance, Department of Revenue vide Notification No. 14/2015-ST dated May 19, 2015 has notified increase in the rate of Service tax from 12.36% to flat 14% (Subsuming Education Cess and Secondary & Higher Secondary Education Cess) to be effective from June 1, 2015.

However, in respect of certain services, applicable rate may be different in view of the abatement, different modes ofvaluation, Partial Reverse Charge as under :

Changes in the Composite rate of Service tax under the Service Tax Rules, 1994 (“the Service Tax Rules”):

The Service Tax Rules gives an option to the specified service provider under different Rules to pay Service tax at the composite rate specified therein instead of the rate mentioned in Section 66B of the Finance Act, 1994 (“the Finance Act”). Consequent to the upward revision in Service tax rate, the composition rate is also proposed to be revised proportionately under Rule 6(7), 6(7A), 6(7B) and 6(7C) of the Service Tax Rules on specified services in the following manner:

Relevant Rule

Service Provider Composite rate of Service tax
Prior to June 1, 2015 W.e.f June 1, 2015
Rule 6(7) Air Travel Agent:
Domestic Bookings 0.6% of the basic fare 0.7% of the basic fare
International Bookings 1.2% of the basic fare 1.4% of the basic fare
Rule 6(7A) Life insurance service: 

Except the cases where amount to be allocated towards investment is intimated to the Policy Holder

First Year 3% of the premium charged from policy holder 3.5% of the premium charged from policy holder
Subsequent year 1.5% of the premium charged from policy holder 1.75% of the premium charged from policy holder
Rule 6(7B) Purchase or sale of foreign currency, including money changing services.
For an amount upto Rs. 100,000/- 0.12% of the gross amount of currency exchanged subject to the minimum amount of Rs. 30 0.14% of the gross amount of currency exchanged subject to the minimum amount of Rs. 35
For an amount exceeding Rs. 100,000/- and upto Rs. 10,00,000/- Rs. 120 and 0.06% of the gross amount of currency exchanged Rs. 140 and 0.07% of the gross amount of currency exchanged
For an amount exceeding Rs. 10,00,000/- Rs. 660 and 0.012% of the gross amount of currency exchanged subject to maximum amount of Rs. 6,000. Rs. 770 and 0.014% of the gross amount of currency exchanged subject to maximum amount of Rs. 7,000.
Rule 6(7C) ·   Lottery distributor and selling agents services:

 

Where the guaranteed prize payout is more than 80%: Rs. 7,000/- on every Rs. 10,00,000/- (or part of Rs. 10,00,000/-) of aggregate face value of lottery tickets printed by organizing State for a draw Rs. 8200/- on every Rs. 10,00,000/- (or part of Rs. 10,00,000/-) of aggregate face value of lottery tickets printed by organizing State for a draw
Where the guaranteed prize payout is less than 80%: Rs. 11,000/- on every Rs. 10,00,000/- (or part of Rs. 10,00,000/-) of aggregate face value of lottery tickets printed by organizing State for a draw. Rs. 12,800/- on every Rs. 10,00,000/- (or part of Rs. 10,00,000/-) of aggregate face value of lottery tickets printed by organizing State for a draw.

Changes under the Service Tax (Determination of Value) Rules, 2006 (“the Service Tax Valuation Rules”)

The Service Tax Valuation Rulesprovides mechanism for determining taxable value of certain services specified therein. Effective rates of Service tax w.e.f June 1, 2015 on these specified services subject to the conditions specified therein are as follows:

Relevant Rule

Name of the service Taxable Value

 

 

 

(%)

Effective rate of Service tax
Prior to June 1, 2015

 

(%)

W.e.f June 1, 2015

 

(%)

Rule 2A(ii) Works Contract
(A) Original Works 40 4.944 5.6
(B) Other than Original Works 70 8.652 9.8
Rule 2C Restaurant or outdoor catering services wherein goods being food or any other article of human consumption or any drink (whether or not intoxicating) is supplied as a part of service
(A) Restaurant Services 40 4.944 5.6
(B) Outdoor catering Services 60 7.416 8.4

 

Changes under the Abatement Notification No. 26/2012-ST dated June 20, 2012 (“the Abatement Notification”)

 

Effective rates of Service tax w.e.f June 1, 2015 on the specified services under the Abatement Notification subject to the conditions specified thereinare as follows:

 

Sl.
No.
Description of taxable
service
Taxable Value

(%)

Effective rate of Service tax
Prior to June 1, 2015

(%)

W.e.f June 1, 2015

(%)

1 Financial leasing including hire purchase 10 1.236 1.4
2 Transport of goods by rail 30 3.708 4.2
3 Transport of passengers, with  or without accompanied belongings by rail 30 3.708 4.2
4 Provisioning of bundled service by way of supply of food or any other article of human consumption or any drink, in a premises together with renting of such premises 70 8.652 9.8
5 Transport of passengers by air, with or without accompanied belongings in

(i) economy class

(ii) other than economy class

 

 

40

60

 

 

4.944

7.416

 

 

5.6

8.4

6 Renting of hotels, inns, guest houses, clubs, campsites or other commercial places meant for residential or lodging purposes. 60 7.416 8.4
7 Services of goods transport agency in relation to transportation of goods. 30 3.708 4.2
8 Renting of motorcab 40 4.944

 

5.6
9 Transport of passengers, with or without accompanied belongings, by a contract carriage other than motorcab or a radio taxi. 40 4.944

 

5.6
10 Transport of goods in a vessel 30 3.708 4.2
11 Services  by a tour operator in relation to,-

(i)  a package tour

25 3.09 3.5
(ii)  arranging or booking accommodation for any person in relation to a tour 10 1.236 1.4
(iii) any services other than specified at (i) and (ii) above. 40 4.944 5.6
12. Construction of a complex, building, civil structure or a part thereof, intended for a sale to a buyer, wholly or partly, except where entire consideration is received after issuance of completion certificate by the competent authority,-

(a) for a residential unit having carpet area less than 2000 square feet and cost is less than one crore Rupees;

 

25

 

3.09

 

3.5

(b) for other than the (a) above. 30 3.708 4.2

Changes under the Notification No. 30/2012-ST dated June 20, 2012 – Partial Reverse Charge

Effective rates of Service tax w.e.f June 1, 2015 to be determined accordingly for service provider and service receiver on services by way of renting of a motor vehicle and Works contract services as per the percentage prescribed under Reverse Charge Mechanism after taking into consideration the rates discussed above.

Here it would not be out of place to mention that Notification No. 30/2012-ST dated June 20, 2012 has been amended vide Notification No. 7/2015-ST dated March 1, 2015, therebyshifting the Supply of Manpower and Security services from Partial Reverse Charge to Full Reverse Charge effective from April 1, 2015.

 

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India Defense Budget

India Defense Budget


India Ranked as 4 of 126
GFP Power Index rating of 0.2698 (0.0000 being perfect)
MANPOWER – Going beyond military equipment totals and perceived fighting strength is the actual manpower that drives a given military. Wars of attrition favor those with more.
 Total Population: 1,251,695,584
 Available Manpower: 616,000,000
 Fit for Service: 489,600,000
 Reaching Military Age Annually: 22,900,000
 Active Frontline Personnel: 1,325,000
 Active Reserve Personnel: 2,143,000
LAND SYSTEMS – Tank value includes Main Battle Tanks, light tanks and tank destroyers, either wheeled or tracked. AFV value includes Armored Personnel Carriers (APCs) and Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs).
 Tanks: 6,464
 Armored Fighting Vehicles (AFVs): 6,704
 Self-Propelled Guns (SPGs): 290
 Towed-Artillery: 7,414
 Multiple-Launch Rocket Systems (MLRSs): 292
AIR POWER – Includes both fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft from all branches of service.
 Total Aircraft: 2,086
 Fighters/Interceptors: 679
 Fixed-Wing Attack Aircraft: 809
 Transport Aircraft: 857
 Trainer Aircraft: 318
 Helicopters: 646
 Attack Helicopters: 19
NAVAL POWER – Aircraft Carrier value includes dedicated “helicopter carrier” vessels. Total naval strength includes all known auxiliaries as well.
 Total Naval Strength: 295
 Aircraft Carriers: 2
 Frigates: 14
 Destroyers: 10
 Corvettes: 26
 Submarines: 14
 Coastal Defense Craft: 135
 Mine Warfare: 6
RESOURCES (PETROLEUM) – Despite the advances made in battlefield technology, oil remains the lifeblood of any fighting force and supporting economy.
 Oil Production: 767,600 bbl/day
 Oil Consumption: 3,510,000 bbl/day
 Proven Oil Reserves: 5,675,000,000 bbl/day
LOGISTICAL – War is as much a battle of logistics – moving man and machine from / to points all over – as it is direct combat. Labor Force adds to available wartime industry strength.
 Labor Force: 492,400,000
 Merchant Marine Strength: 340
 Major Ports and Terminals: 7
 Roadway Coverage: 3,320,410
 Railway Coverage: 63,974
 Serviceable Airports: 346
FINANCIAL (in USD) – Regardless of strength in numbers, war is still driven by financing as much as any one leader or weapon.
 Defense Budget: $40,000,000,000
 External Debt: $459,100,000,000
 Reserves of Foreign Exchange and Gold: $370,700,000,000
 Purchasing Power Parity: $7,411,000,000,000
GEOGRAPHY (in km) – Geographical values primarily figure into a defensive-minded war (i.e. invasion).

 Square Land Area: 3,287,263 km
 Coastline: 7,000 km
 Shared Border: 13,888 km
 Waterways: 14,500 km

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